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The COANDA effect

Henry Coanda

Henri Marie COANDA’s biography


Henri Marie Coanda was the second child of a large family, born on June 7th 1886 in Bucharest. His father, the General Constantin Coanda, taught math at the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, was a minister and Prime Minister of the Romanian government (October - November 1918). His mother, Aïda Danet, was the daughter of the French doctor, Gustave Danet, born in Brittany. From a tender age, the future engineer and scientist was fascinated by the phenomenon of wind.

Coanda enrolled to study engineering at SUPAERO, a newly founded school of aerospace in Paris (1909), from which he graduated in 1910 as top of the first class of aeronautical engineers.

Pioneer of worldwide jet aviation

With support from the engineer Gustave Eiffel and the scientist Paul Painlevé, Henri Marie Coanda conducted preliminary aerodynamic experiments and built the first jet aircraft. In October 1910, he demonstrated a revolutionary, non-propeller powered monoplane using the principle of the future jet engines (Coanda-1910), at the second International Aeronautics and Space Show in Paris-Le Bourget.
Effet Coanda
During the monoplane’s first test flight, at the airport of Issy-les-Moulineaux, near Paris, long flames came shooting out of its exhaust nozzle and the plane crashed against a wall. This event marked the beginning of in-depth studies which led to the development of a nozzle which is still used by aircraft engine manufacturers today. This was also the beginning of Coanda’s studies into the movement of fluids, which came to be known as the Coanda effect. In 1934, Coanda was granted a French patent, for a “method and device for deviation of a fluid into another fluid”, which refers to the phenomenon called the « Coanda effect », and which consists in the deviation of a fluid jet flowing along a convex surface. This phenomenon was first observed by Henri Coanda in 1910, when he was performing tests on the engine which powered his jet aircraft. This discovery led him to carry out significant, applicative research into the high-lift of aerodynes, the creation of sound reducers, etc.

Henri Coanda returned to his native Romania in 1969, as director of the National Institute for Scientific Creation (INCREST) in Bucharest. He died on November 25th 1972.
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